Targeted Exercise Training for Cancer Patients: Moving beyond Generic Exercise Guidelines in Clinical Oncology
The field of exercise oncology has rapidly evolved over the past 30 years. Initial investigations of safety and feasibility have progressed towards efficacy and effectiveness trials with a variety of health-related outcomes in mind. More recently, it has been recognized that interventions aimed at modifying physical activity behavior (i.e. behavioral interventions to increase participation in un/structured physical activity) are distinctly different from those aiming to target a clinically relevant outcome (using a specific exercise prescription). There is a strong rationale for the latter, where cancer/treatment toxicities can result in musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, and/or hematological declines with important prognostic implications. Treatment intolerance, unfavorable tumor response and heightened risk of mortality are all consequences of leaving these impairments unaddressed. Importantly, the control/ reversal of the decline in these systems is more likely to occur through a targeted exercise prescription, specifically designed to target the impairment, rather than interventions trying to change behavior. This requires careful consideration in the study design in exercise oncology in relation to the selection of clinically relevant outcomes, decisions on methods of assessments and ensuring the exercise is targeted to the outcome.
The objective of this review is to 1) conceptualize and provide a clinical rationale for targeted exercise interventions in exercise oncology, and 2) provide a framework for consideration in the design and execution in targeted exercise interventions in oncology. We hope that this framework can encourage research into targeted exercise interventions in oncology and that our framework can be used to inform the design of future trials.
Strengthening the case for cluster set resistance training in aged and clinical settings: Emerging evidence, proposed benefits and suggestions
Resistance training (RT) is a fundamental component of exercise prescription aimed at improving overall health and function. RT techniques such as cluster set (CS) confgurations, characterized by additional short intra-set or inter-repetition rest intervals, have been shown to maintain acute muscular force, velocity, and ‘power’ outputs across a RT session, and facilitate positive longer-term neuromuscular adaptations. However, to date CS have mainly been explored from a human performance perspective despite potential for application in health and clinical exercise settings. Therefore, this current opinion piece aims to highlight emerging evidence and provide a rationale for why CS may be an advantageous RT technique for older adults, and across several neurological, neuromuscular, cardiovascular and pulmonary settings. Specifcally, CS may minimize acute fatigue and adverse physiologic responses, improve patient tolerance of RT and promote functional adaptations (i.e., force, velocity, and power). Moreover, we propose that CS may be a particularly useful exercise rehabilitation technique where injury or illness, persistent fatigue, weakness and dysfunction exist. We further suggest that CS ofer an alternative RT strategy that can be easily implemented alongside existing exercise/rehabilitation programs requiring no extra cost, minimal upskilling and/or time commitment for the patient and professional. In light of the emerging evidence and likely efcacy in clinical exercise practice, future research should move toward further direct investigation of CS-based RT in a variety of adverse health conditions and across the lifespan given the already demonstrated benefts in healthy populations.
Exercise Medicine in the Management of Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review.
The aim of this study was to examine the health-related effects of exercise in patients with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) through a systematic review of current evidence. Studies were obtained through searching PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library databases with additional hand searches. All intervention-based studies were included if it involved (1) adult patients with PanCa, (2) exercise training, and (3) findings in quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, psychological distress, and physical function. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO: CRD42020154684. Seven trials described in 9 publications were included consisting of 201 patients with early-stage and advanced PanCa. Participants were required to perform supervised and/or home-based, low- to moderate-intensity resistance and/or aerobic exercise for 12 to 35 weeks or duration of neoadjuvant therapy. There were no exercise-related adverse events with a reported retention rate of 71% to 90% and exercise attendance of 64% to 96%. The programs were consistently associated with improvements in cancer-related fatigue, psychological distress, and physical function, with mixed effects on quality of life. Exercise training seems to be safe and feasible and may have a beneficial effect on various physical and psychological outcomes in patients with PanCa. Further work with rigorous study designs is required to consolidate and advance current findings.
Psychological Distress in Men with Prostate Cancer Undertaking Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Modifying Effects of Exercise from a Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial
Objectives To assess the long-term effects of various exercise modes on psychological distress in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients and methods 135 prostate cancer patients aged 43–90 years on ADT were randomized to twice weekly supervised impact loading and resistance exercise (ImpRes), supervised aerobic and resistance exercise (AerRes), and usual care/ delayed supervised aerobic exercise (DelAer) for 12 months, and completed measures of psychological distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). BSI-18 provides three subscales for anxiety, depression, and somatisation, as well as the global severity index (GSI) where higher scores indicate higher distress. Results Following the intervention, somatization was not different to baseline, however, there were significant interactions (p < 0.01) for depression, anxiety, and the GSI. In ImpRes, depression was reduced at 12 months compared to baseline and 6 months (0.78 ± 1.39 vs. 1.88 ± 3.24 and 1.48 ± 2.65, p < 0.001), as was the GSI (3.67 ± 4.34 vs. 5.94 ± 7.46 and 4.64 ± 4.73, p < 0.001) with anxiety reduced compared to baseline (1.08 ± 1.54 vs. 1.98 ± 2.56). Depression and the GSI decreased (p < 0.05) in AerRes at 6 months but increased by 12 months, while in DelAer the GSI was reduced at 12 months compared to 6 months (3.78 ± 3.94 vs. 5.25 ± 4.22, p = 0.031). Men with the highest level of anxiety, depression, somatization, and the GSI improved the most with exercise (ptrend < 0.001). Conclusion Various supervised exercise modes (aerobic, resistance and impact loading) are effective in reducing psychological distress in men with prostate cancer on ADT. Those with the highest level of psychological distress improved the most. Supervised exercise should be prescribed to improve psychological health in prostate cancer patients on ADT.
ReStOre@Home: Feasibility study of a virtually delivered 12-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for survivors of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer – Study Protocol
Background: Exercise rehabilitation programmes, traditionally involving supervised exercise sessions, have had to rapidly adapt to virtual delivery in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to minimise patient contacts. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the pandemic is likely to persist in the medium term and during this time it is important that the feasibility and effectiveness of remote solutions is considered. We have previously established the feasibility of the Rehabilitation Strategies following Oesophago-gastric Cancer (ReStOre) intervention - a face to face multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer survivors. This study will examine the feasibility of a virtually delivered 12-week multi-component ReStOre@Home programme.
Methods: This single arm feasibility study will recruit 12 patients who have completed curative treatment for oesophago-gastric cancer. Participants will complete the 12-week ReStOre@Home programme consisting of exercise (aerobic and resistance training), 1:1 dietary counselling and group education sessions through virtual delivery. Underpinned by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework, feasibility will be determined by recruitment rates, adherence, retention, incidents, and acceptability. Acceptability will be assessed qualitatively through post-intervention interview and the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be assessed pre and post-intervention and will include measures of physical performance (cardiopulmonary exercise test, short physical performance battery, hand grip strength, Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire, and body composition), health related quality of life (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30) and oesophago-gastric cancer specific subscale (EORTC-QLQ-OG25), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), and venous blood samples will be collected for the UGI Cancer Survivorship Biobank.
Discussion: The ReStOre@Home feasibility study will provide important data regarding the amenability of a multidisciplinary programme designed for UGI cancer survivors to virtual delivery.
Evaluation of an Exercise Intervention for Effects on Sexual Function in Men with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Randomised Controlled Trial.
Objectives Treatments for prostate cancer such as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), surgery and radiation therapy can adversely affect sexual, urinary and bowel function. Preliminary research has demonstrated the efficacy of exercise to preserve sexual function in men with localised prostate cancer receiving ADT, though this has yet to be investigated in a metastatic setting. We examined the effects of a 12-week exercise programme comprising resistance, aerobic and flexibility training on sexual health and function in men with advanced prostate cancer.
Methods Patients with prostate cancer (70.0±8.4 year; body mass index 28.7±4.0 kg/m2) with bone metastases (rib/thoracic spine, 66.7%; lumbar spine, 43.9%; pelvis, 75.4%; femur, 40.4%; humerus, 24.6%; other sites, 70.2%) were randomly assigned to supervised exercise 3 days/week (n=28) or usual care (n=29). Sexual health and function were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function, the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and the EORTC-PR25 at baseline and 12 weeks.
Results Patients attended 89% of planned sessions and there were no adverse events. After adjusting for baseline values, there was no significant difference between groups for any measure of sexual function and activity (p>0.05). Additionally, there was no significant difference between groups for urinary and bowel function assessed by the EORTC-PR25 (p>0.05).
Conclusions A short-term programme of supervised exercise does not appear to enhance indices of sexual health and function in men with advanced prostate cancer. Limitations of the intervention included the conservative modular exercise programme, which deliberately avoided loading bone metastatic sites.
Sport Medicine in the Prevention and Management of Cancer
Physical inactivity is a major concern in cancer patients despite the established preventative and therapeutic effects of regular physical exercise for this patient group. Sport not only plays an important role in supporting the development and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle but also is increasingly used as a health promotion activity in various populations. Nevertheless, the potential of sport as an effective strategy in the prevention and management of cancer has gained little attention. Based on the scant evidence to date, participation of cancer patients in supervised, well-tailored sport programs appears to be safe and feasible and is associated with an array of physical and psychological benefits. We propose that sport participation may serve as an alternative strategy in the prevention of cancer and sport medicine in the management of cancer. As with the traditional exercise modes, benefits derived from sport participation will be dependent on the sport undertaken and the physical/physiological, motor, and cognitive demands required. To this end, further work is required to develop a solid evidence base in this field so that targeted sport participation can be recommended for cancer patients
Effects of an Exercise and Dietary Intervention on Select Social Cognitive Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Objective. To compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary (EX+D) intervention with those of standard-of-care (SC) treatment on select social cognitive outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods. In the single-blind, 2-arm, randomized controlled Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence–Pilot (IDEA-P) trial, 32 PCa patients (mean age = 66.2 years; SD = 7.8) undergoing ADT were randomly assigned to a 12-week EX+D intervention (n = 16) or SC treatment (n = 16). The exercise component of the personalized EX+D intervention integrated a combination of supervised resistance and aerobic exercise performed twice per week. The dietary component involved counseling and education to modify dietary intake and composition. Blinded assessments of social cognitive outcomes were obtained at baseline and 2-month and 3-month follow-up. Results. Intent-to-treat analysis of covariance demonstrated that the EX+D intervention resulted in significantly greater improvements in scheduling (P < .05), coping (P < .01), and exercise self-efficacy (P < .05), and satisfaction with function (P < .01) at 3 months relative to SC. Results of partial correlation analysis also demonstrated that select social cognitive outcomes were significantly correlated with primary trial outcomes of mobility performance and exercise participation (P < .05) at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: The GMCB lifestyle intervention yielded more favorable improvements in relevant social cognitive outcomes relative to SC among PCa patients undergoing ADT. Additionally, more favorable social cognitive outcomes were associated with superior mobility performance and exercise participation following the independent maintenance phase of the EX+D intervention.
The Exercise Oncology Twitter Conference: Disseminating Research in the Age of Social Media
Background: Scientists are using social media to amplify their scientific impact. As such, researchers are looking for novel ways to engage this medium to promote scientific findings and communicate research to a broader audience. Here, we examine the use of a Twitter conference as a means to effectively communicate advances in the field of exercise oncology.
Methods: The Exercise Oncology Twitter Conference (ExOncTC) occurred in October 2018. Each presentation consisted of 6 tweets over 15 min. Attendees were able to interact during a presentation via the conference hashtag (#ExOncTC). Registration data were used to characterize presenters and participants while Twitter Analytics/Union Metrics were used to aggregate data to determine engagement and reach.
Results: The ExOncTC featured 68 presenters from 13 countries and 48 institutions. Presenters varied in academic background (ranging from undergraduate students [1.5%] to terminal degree holders [46%]) and profession (including researchers [42.5%] and physicians [6%]). Participants, including researchers, physicians, students, patients, and organizations could register via the Web site (n = 231), follow the @ExOncTC Twitter handle (n = 805), and/or search the #ExOncTC hashtag. During the conference, #ExOncTC was tweeted 1,501 times by 483 unique users for 4,943 total engagements (number of times a user interacts with a tweet). Collectively, these tweets reached 453,900 distinct users with potential impressions equaling 1.8 million (number of views possible).
Conclusion: Reach of the ExOncTC demonstrates the potential effectiveness of using a Twitter conference as a platform to communicate the field of exercise oncology, suggesting Twitter conferencing should be explored as a tool for scientific dissemination to the broader field of clinical exercise physiology.
Examining the effects of creatine supplementation in augmenting adaptations to resistance training in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Introduction: Creatine supplementation has consistently been demonstrated to augment adaptations in body composition, muscle strength and physical function in a variety of apparently healthy older adults and clinical populations. The effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training in individuals with cancer have yet to be investigated. This study aims to examine the effects of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on body composition, muscle strength and physical function in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.
Methods and analysis: This is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to examine the effects of creatine supplementation in addition to resistance training in patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Both supplement and placebo groups will receive a 12-week supervised exercise programme comprising resistance training undertaken three times per week. The primary endpoint (fat-free mass) and secondary endpoints (fat mass, per cent body fat, physical fitness, quality of life and blood biomarkers) will be assessed at baseline and immediately following the intervention.
Ethics and dissemination: The Human Research Ethics Committee of Edith Cowan University approved this study (ID: 22243 FAIRMAN). If the results of this trial demonstrate that creatine supplementation can augment beneficial adaptations of body composition, physical function and/or psychosocial outcomes to resistance training, this study will provide effect sizes that will inform the design of subsequent definitive randomised controlled trials. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at various national and international conferences.
Reporting of Resistance Training Dose, Adherence, and Tolerance in Exercise Oncology
Purpose: While general guidelines (such as CONSORT or Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template) exist to enhance the reporting of exercise interventions in the field of exercise science, there is inadequate detail facilitating the standardized reporting of resistance training adherence in the oncology setting. The purpose of this study was to apply a novel method to report resistance training dose, adherence, and tolerance in patients with cancer.
Methods: A total of 47 prostate cancer patients (70.1 ± 8.9 yr, body mass index, 28.6 ± 4.0) with bone metastatic disease completed an exercise program for 12 wk. We assessed traditional metrics of adherence (attendance and loss to follow-up), in addition to novel proposed metrics (exercise-relative dose intensity, dose modification, and exercise interruption). Total training volume in kilograms (repetitions × sets × training load (weight)) was calculated for each patient.
Results: Attendance assessed from traditional metrics was 79.5% ± 17.0% and four patients (9%) were lost to follow-up. The prescribed and actual cumulative total dose of resistance training was 139,886 ± 69,150 kg and 112,835 ± 83,499 kg, respectively, with a mean exercise-relative dose intensity of 77.4% ± 16.6% (range: 19.4% -99.4%). Resistance training was missed (1-2 consecutive sessions) or interrupted (missed ≥3 consecutive sessions) in 41 (87%) and 24 (51%) participants, respectively. Training dose was modified (reduction in sets, repetitions, or weight) in 40 (85%) of patients. Importantly, using attendance as a traditional metric of adherence, these sessions would have all counted as adherence to the protocol.
Conclusions: Traditional reporting metrics of resistance training in exercise oncology may overestimate exercise adherence. Our proposed metrics to capture resistance training dose, adherence, and tolerance may have important applications for future studies and clinical practice.
Exercise Professionals in the Cancer Center: Experiences, Recommendations, and Future Research.
In 2018, the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia published a landmark position statement calling for exercise to be integrated as standard practice in cancer care. Efforts to implement this directive in the years ahead will come with many practical challenges. We suggest that for the successful integration of exercise therapy to occur, exercise professionals and their services will have to become a respected, visible, and promoted part of the cancer treatment center itself (i.e., “part of the woodwork”). However, we are aware of no report in the literature documenting the role or experiences of an exercise professional working within a cancer center, or practical recommendations for the implementation and evaluation of exercise services in this setting. Therefore, we detail the experiences of an accredited exercise physiologist, to our knowledge, one of the first to be employed on a full-time basis within a cancer center in Australia (M.M.). On the basis of this case study, we provide practical recommendations for exercise professionals seeking to integrate exercise services within the cancer treatment setting. In addition, we present a model of care involving a key role for the exercise professional, which could be implemented to improve patient care and health outcomes throughout cancer treatment and beyond. Although our article is written from an Australian perspective, our recommendations may be relevant to and/or adapted for health care systems in other countries.
The Potential Therapeutic Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition and Muscle Function in Cancer.
independence and is associated with greater treatment toxicity and poorer prognosis. Exercise interventions are regularly being investigated as a means to ameliorate treatment-related adverse effects, and nutritional/supplementation strategies to augment adaptations to exercise are highly valuable. Creatine (Cr) is a naturally-occurring substance in the human body that plays a critical role in energy provision during muscle contraction. Given the beneficial effects of Cr supplementation on lean body mass, strength, and physical function in a variety of clinical populations, there is therapeutic potential in individuals with cancer at heightened risk for muscle loss. Here, we provide an overview of Cr physiology, summarize the evidence on the use of Cr supplementation in various aging/clinical populations, explore mechanisms of action, and provide perspectives on the potential therapeutic role of Cr in the exercise oncology setting.
Effects of a Group-Mediated Exercise and Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Results From the IDEA-P Trial
Background: Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment for prostate cancer, the physiological impacts of ADT result in functional decline and enhanced risk of chronic disease and metabolic syndrome.
Purpose: The Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial (IDEA-P) is a single-blind, randomized, pilot trial comparing the effects of a group-mediated, cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary intervention (EX+D) with those of a standard-of-care (SC) control during the treatment of prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT.
Methods: A total of 32 prostate cancer patients (M age = 66.28, SD = 7.79) undergoing ADT were randomly assigned to the 12-week EX+D intervention (n = 16) or control (n = 16). The primary outcome in IDEA-P was change in mobility performance with secondary outcomes including body composition and muscular strength. Blinded assessment of outcomes were obtained at baseline and at 2- and 3-month follow-ups.
Results: Favorable adherence and retention rates were observed, and no serious intervention-related adverse events were documented. Intent-to-treat ANCOVA controlling for baseline value and ADT duration demonstrated that EX+D resulted in significantly greater improvements in mobility performance (p < .02), muscular strength (p < .01), body fat percentage (p < .05), and fat mass (p < .03) at 3-month follow-up, relative to control.
Conclusion: Findings from the IDEA-P trial suggest that a GMCB-based EX+D intervention resulted in significant, clinically meaningful improvements in mobility performance, muscular strength, and body composition, relative to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the EX+D was a safe and well-tolerated intervention for prostate cancer patients on ADT. The utility of implementing this approach in the treatment of prostate cancer patients on ADT should be evaluated in future large-scale efficacy trials.
Monitoring Resistance Exercise Intensity Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Previously Untrained Patients With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Exercise has been shown to be safe and effective for patients with prostate cancer (PrCa). The monitoring of resistance exercise (RE) intensity is an emerging area of interest in RE prescription. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is one of the most commonly used methods but has not yet been validated in this population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between RPE and RE intensity in PrCa. Data for this study were abstracted from baseline upper- and lower-body strength assessments from 2 previous trials (Individual Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial; Livestrong, Austin, TX, USA) in our laboratory investigating functional outcomes in patients with PrCa undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). A total of 75 participants from both trials were included in this study. Ratings of perceived exertion corresponding to 50, 70, and 90% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) were extracted from the results of participants' upper- and lower-body 1RM strength tests. The changes in RPE across increasing intensities were assessed using separate univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). For each ANOVA, RPE was used as the dependent variable and intensity (50, 70, and 90%) used as the fixed factor. A univariate ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) among the RPE values for each intensity for both upper- and lower-body lifts. The results of our analyses suggest that RPE values rise linearly in response to increases in exercise intensity. Our study supports the concept that RPE may be a practical training tool to accurately estimate RE intensity in PrCa survivors undergoing ADT. Practitioners may consider using RPE to monitor and adjust RE intensity in this population.
A group-mediated physical activity intervention in older knee osteoarthritis patients: effects on social cognitive outcomes
The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results of intent-to-treat 2 (Treatment: GMCB and TRAD) × 2 (Time: 3 and 12 month) analyses of covariance yielded significantly greater increases in SRSE and SPF (P < 0.01) relative to TRAD. Partial correlations revealed that changes in SRSE and SPF were significantly related (P < 0.05) to improvements in physical activity and mobility at 3 and 12- months. The GMCB intervention yielded more favorable effects on important social cognitive outcomes than TRAD; these effects were related to improvements in physical activity and mobility
A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.
To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.
Resistance training interventions across the cancer control continuum: a systematic review of the implementation of resistance training principles
Objectives: The primary purpose of this systematic review is to examine the extant resistance training (RT) cancer research to evaluate the proportion of RT interventions that: (1) implemented key RT training principles (specificity, progression, overload) and (2) explicitly reported relevant RT prescription components (frequency, intensity, sets, reps).
Design: A qualitative systematic review was performed by two reviewers (CMF and PNH) who inspected the titles and abstracts to determine eligibility for this systematic review. Identified papers were obtained in full and further reviewed. Data were extracted to evaluate the application of principles of training, along with specific RT components.
Data sources: Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, PsychInfo, Cancer Lit, Sport Discus, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and reference lists of included articles from inception to May 2016.
Results: 37 studies were included. The principle of specificity was used appropriately in all of the studies, progression in 65% and overload in 76% of the studies. The most common exercise prescription (∼50%) implemented in the studies included in this review were 2-3 days/week, focusing on large muscle groups, 60-70% 1 repetition maximum (RM), 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions.
Conclusions: Reporting of RT principles in an oncology setting varies greatly, with often vague or non-existent references to the principles of training and how the RT prescription was designed.
Effects of exercise interventions during different treatments in breast cancer
Previous findings suggest that exercise is a safe and efficacious means of improving physiological and psychosocial outcomes in female breast cancer survivors. To date, most research has focused on post-treatment interventions. However, given that the type and severity of treatment-related adverse effects may be dependent on the type of treatment, and that the effects are substantially more pronounced during treatment, an assessment of the safety and efficacy of exercise during treatment is warranted. In this review, we present and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted during breast cancer treatment. We conducted literature searches to identify studies examining exercise interventions in breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation. Data were extracted on physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated for each outcome. A total of 17 studies involving 1,175 participants undergoing active cancer therapy met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed that, on average, exercise interventions resulted in moderate to large improvements in muscular strength: resistance exercise (RE, d = 0.86), aerobic exercise (AE, d = 0.55), small to moderate improvements in cardiovascular functioning (RE, d = 0.45; AE, d = 0.17, combination exercise (COMB, d = 0.31) and quality of life (QoL; RE, d = 0.30; AE, d = 0.50; COMB, d = 0.63). The results of this review suggest that exercise is a safe, feasible, and efficacious intervention in breast cancer patients who are undergoing different types of treatment. Additional research addressing the different modes of exercise during each type of treatment is warranted to assess the comparable efficacy of the various exercise modes during established breast cancer treatments.
Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women. Journal
The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p < 0.01), comparable improvements in affect emerged after RE. Additionally, the SS condition was associated with the highest ratings of self-efficacy and intention for future RE participation (p < 0.01), but affective responses to acute RE were unrelated to self-efficacy or intention. It is concluded that acute bouts of SS and imposed load RE resulted in comparable improvements in affect; recreationally trained women reported the highest self-efficacy and intention to use the load chosen in SS condition in their own resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.
Women Exercise and Aging
Aging is associated with physiological declines, notably a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and lean body mass, with a concurrent increase in body fat and central adiposity. Interest in women and aging is of particular interest partly as a result of gender specific responses to aging, particularly as a result of menopause. It is possible that the onset of menopause may augment the physiological decline associated with aging and inactivity. More so, a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (an accumulation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose) has been shown in middle-aged women during the postmenopausal period. This is due in part to the drastic changes in body composition, as previously discussed, but also a change in physical activity (PA) levels. Sarcopenia is an age related decrease in the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibers that consequently leads to a decline in physical function, gait speed, balance, coordination, decreased BMD, and quality of life. PA plays an essential role in combating physiological decline associated with aging. Maintenance of adequate levels of PA can result in increased longevity and a reduced risk for metabolic disease along with other chronic diseases. The aim of this paper is to review relevant literature, examine current PA guidelines, and provide recommendations specific to women based on current research
Functional Performance in Older Adults After a Combination Multicomponent Exercise Program and Bingo Game
Inexpensive exercise interventions are needed to attract and retain older adults to participate in sufficient amounts of exercise to improve functional performance (FP). This study examined the addition of a program enhancing game, bingo, to a multicomponent exercise program (BingocizeTM). Older adults (18 women, M age = 75.1 (8.63) years, participated 2 days per week (45- 60 minute sessions) for 10 weeks. Participants sat at tables with bingo cards, balance pads, and exercise bands. Exercises were alternated with rolls of bingo until a participant won the bingo game. Pre and post body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and FP were measured. FP was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Using paired-sample t-tests, significant improvements were found in all FP measures, but not in BW or BMI (p ˂ .05). The low-cost, sustainability, and ease of implementation suggest BingocizeTM may be a novel and enjoyable alternative to traditional older adult group exercise interventions. Our results should be interpreted with caution due to the lack of a control group and small sample size. Future research could examine changes in activities of daily living, quality of life, and other measures of functional fitness in this and other populations.